Acad. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. If you were to compress all of the sulfur dioxide in a column of the atmosphere into a flat layer at standard temperature and pressure (0 C and 1013.25 hPa), one Dobson Unit would be 0.01 millimeters thick and would contain 0.0285 grams of SO2 per square meter. Lava flowed in a channel as much as 6-7 km N. Its front was advancing at 2-3 km/h on 12 September. Zairian scientists who visited the crater on 25 August observed ash emission from the 1989 fissure and confirmed that there had been fresh lava extrusion in the central crater. Activity is described through April 2017. The GORISK Scientific Team reported that satellite radar (InSAR) images acquired on 11 November 2011 revealed major ground deformation features associated with the eruption—the largest deformation detected by that method (InSAR) since the early 1990s at Nyamuragira. The eruption of Nyamuragira on July 4, 1994 from a fissure on the west flank generated ash, lava fountains, and flows. Satellite images confirmed that ongoing activity from the lava lake remained strong during June -September 2018 (figure 78). Explosive activity was concentrated at 3 locations along the fissure, building 3 small cinder cones. The eruption resumed on 2 August at about 1700, producing a lava fountain 150 m high. An SO2 cloud probably associated with the February 2001 eruption of Nyamuragira was first detected by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on 6 February. Microseismic activity recorded by IRS seismic stations declined sharply on 22 February. TOMS imagery on 7 February showed a diffuse SO2 cloud (estimated SO2 mass ~80 kt) over Cameroon and Congo, and high levels of SO2 WSW of Nyamuragira (truncated by a gap between TOMS swaths; figure 18b). Preliminary estimation of the observed deformation signal suggested an affected area spreading over 250 km2. Around the time of the eruption at least one Earth Probe TOMS image indicated elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations (with a few scattered pixels reaching over 15 milliAtm-cm). Information Contacts: Kasereka Mahinda and François Lukaya, Goma Volcano Observatory, Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Smets, B., Wauthier, C., D'Oreye, N., and van Overbeke, A.-C., 2010d (in press) Volcanological map of Nyamulagira?Virunga Volcanic Province, North Kivu, D.R.C. Both cones were about 300 m high. Fighting between the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) government and several rebel groups displaced 2-3 million people within that country by February 2014 (UN News Centre, 2014). Lava fountaining was much weaker 5 January, but the rate of effusion of the lava flow remained constant that day, then increased during the evening of 6 January. Multiple images show incandescence in multiple places within the crater, suggesting significant fresh overflowing lava. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. As 27 January eruption began, witnesses assumed they heard artillery fire. Lava initially flowed NE, covering an area 2 km long and 0.5 km wide, with a maximum thickness of about 1 m. The second (main) flow moved more than 7 km, then turned in a northeasterly direction, over the 1958 Kitsimbanyi Flow, destroying a 13 km-long section of forest in Rwindi National Park. Activity from October 2017-May 2019. Video posted on the park's website showed a fissure eruption with lava fountains. Few hotpots were visible SE of the summit on 1 and 2 February, though visual observations by helicopter confirmed that no more lava was emitted. The MIROVA signal reappeared in early November, followed by intermittent MODVOLC thermal alerts beginning on 27 November. . Depths for all of the earthquakes decreased from W to E and from S to N, suggesting a volcanic conduit rising in a generally NE direction towards the surface on the ESE flank of Nyamuragira. Campion (2014) and Smets and others (2014) debated whether the lava lake first appeared in April or not until November. It is a massive basaltic shield volcano that rises about 25 km north of Lake Kivu. Hot tephra and gases kill livestock and plants. Activity during 27 October-14 December 2002. MODVOLC thermal alerts were accessed online in late July 2014. Hood had at least 4 major eruptions in the last 15,000 years. Big surge begins late Aug – 13 Sep, then stops abruptly. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout ~2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow ~20 m wide. This false-color view combines shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green light. MODIS instrument infrared data is automatically analyzed with the MODVOLC algorithm, creating alerts for cases with above-threshold thermal emissions. Ashfall occurred during the first week of the eruption and affected Goma and villages to the W and SW. During the following days, only a small amount of ash was in the plume. MONUSCO-supported summit crater visits by researchers on 2 April 2015, and photographer Oliver Grunwald on 10 July 2015, confirmed the presence of an active lava lake during both visits (figure 64, and video link in Information Contacts). A substantial flank eruption took place from November 2011 through March 2012. This observation suggested to Tedesco (2010) that magma was already close to the surface before the eruption. Volcanism that began on 6 February 2001 continued into March. During the next few days, the eruptive activity migrated to this new edifice. They stressed that an eruption from Nyamuragira would not threaten the city of Goma or other inhabited areas. Sequence of activity at Nyamuragira's 1991-92 eruption vents. This approach (also known as Middle InfraRed method) relies on the fact that whenever a hot emitter has an effective radiating temperature higher than 600 K, the excess radiance detected in the MIR region (DLMIR), can be linearly related to the radiative power. Based on precursory activity before previous historical eruptions at Nyamuragira, GVO reported that a new eruption might occur in the next 2-4 months. The swarms were recorded by the entire seismic network at the volcano, as far away as 90 km S of the volcano. Card 1187 (30 April 1971) Sergio Bottazi, Gisenyi, Rwanda. Scientists believed this increased activity could signal a large eruption sometime in the near future. Many long-period earthquakes occurred during the week of 16-22 March, including frequent fracture-related earthquakes. Later, seven type-C events followed until 2232. Nyamuragira (left) and Nyiragongo (right). Continued lava production from fissure vents. Seismicity increased from the previous week, with sequences of LP earthquakes coupled with volcanic tremor episodes between 28 and 31 July. A data gap over eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) prevented measurements on 9 May, although there was evidence for some SO2 drifting over northern Tanzania, ~ 720 km from Nyamuragira. In general, volcanic tremors remained omnipresent. MODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism. At about 1200 on 23 December, an eruption began from the NE end of a 1-km-long, N45°E-trending fissure on the SW flank of Nyamuragira. Bukavu, DR Congo; During 13-19 July 2003, LP earthquakes NE of the volcano again dominated seismicity. After this point the size and intensity of the anomaly rapidly diminished (detected anomalies after mid-August were no more than 8 pixels in size). By 8 February the anomaly had increased in size and was oriented in a SSW-NNE direction; a second hot spot, ~13x6 km in size and oriented towards the E-ESE, was detected SSE of the summit. 20) became active on 14 July, producing a voluminous lava flow for the first two days, and high lava fountains that rose 50 m on 21 July. The caldera area is shown enlarged in the white-boxed inset. Numerous flank eruptions have been observed since that time, the last during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. For the eruption's first two weeks, lava fountaining was confined to the S end of a fissure ~500 m long. The distribution of hypocenters was similar to that observed during September. The volcano, whose name is sometimes written as Nyamlagira and Nyamulagira, was the scene of several seismic swarms in middle and late 2005. Only weak gas emission was observed the next day. More than 25 eruptions have been documented from Nyamuragira since 1882. 1777, 1017 Luxembourg, Luxembourg (URL: http://www.fnr.lu); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com); CNN (URL: http://www.cnn.com); BBC (URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk). Geographic background. The Goma Volcano Observatory reported that a new eruption at Nyamuragira, which began on 8 May at 0548, was marked by strong volcanic tremor. Vigorous lava production continued through June . Most of the new lava was aa, with a few benches of pahoehoe, mainly near the cones. This flow was about 1.5 m thick near the vent. . Nyamuragira also began erupting in July 1994, producing lava fountaining, lava flows, and ash emission. Five seismic stations were operating during this period, four of them (Kibati, Rusayo, Buhimba, and Kunene) telemetered to the Goma observatory, and the fifth (Mt. Information Contacts: D. Rothery, Open Univ. | April OVG reported the new lava emissions beginning on 14 April 2018 as appearing from both the lava lake and a small adjacent spatter cone (figure 74). This activity was characterized by A-type (high-frequency) and C-type (low-frequency) events. An eruption began at Nyamuragira on the evening of 25 July that produced a cloud composed of steam, gas, and ash, 100- to 200-m-high lava fountains, and lava flows down the volcano's N and S flanks. Seismicity increased greatly at the Goma seismic station; it was mainly tremor, but not at the same high levels of July 2002. An 18 February Reuters news article by Jean-Baptiste Kayigamba reported that the volcano spewed large amounts of molten lava from three cones with "flames" rising 100 m above the volcano. The effusion rate and speed of the lava flow remained unchanged 9-11 January, but the height of the lava fountains decreased. Additional information about late-December 1976 activity. Lava eruption from new SW flank crater on 23 December. Smoke was observed near Nyamuragira and thunder was heard. The Alert Level for the nearby city of Goma remained at Yellow. Wright, R., Flynn, L.P., Garbeil, H., Harris, A.J.L., Pilger, E., 2004. According to a news article, lava from Nyamuragira continued to flow S and SW on 6 January, and had traveled 21 km to within 7 km of the road between Goma and Sake. Sur l'eruption du Nyamulagira de Decembre 1981 a Janvier 1982: cone et coulee du Rugarambiro (Kivu, Zaire). Glow was visible at night from the city of Goma, ~30 km SE of the volcano. The name means Herd of Cows. Information Contacts: N. Zana, CRSN, Bukavu; H-L. Hody, Kigali, Rwanda. Based on satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that during 29 November-2 December 2006 emissions produced ash plumes to altitudes of 3-6.1 km. Figure 57 is a time-series plot for Nyamuragira compiled by the MIROVA infrared processing system. Overflights attempted by GVO on 8 May failed because of the rainy season's bad weather, but the quick glimpse suggested a significant lava flow descending the N slope. Lava fountains 150-200 m high formed a 70-m spatter cone around the vent. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 135, 29–49. Volcanic clouds produced during the eruption were detected by several satellites. Mus Roy Afr Centr, Tervuren (Belg), Dept Geol Mineral, Rapp Ann 1977, p 157-175. On 2 November OVG measured the height from the base of the active cone to the W rim of the crater as 58 m (figure 81). The Park noted that the vent area was located 12 km ENE of the crater, close to one of the 1989 eruptive sites. The following week, between 20 and 26 July, LP earthquakes continued in the NE and to a lesser extent along the SE fracture zone. Nyamuragira last erupted in February 2001. Preliminary analysis indicates that this cloud contained ~230 kilotons (kt) of SO2. Night glow disappeared 16-17 March. A small lava lake was again visible in the pit crater on 27 April 2016 when observed by Sebastien Valade of the University of Florence on another MONUSCO-sponsored flight (figure 65). This fracture was active during the first hours of the eruption only. An ash cloud was visible in satellite imagery the next day. Information Contacts: Jacques Durieux, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Three scoria cones formed adjacent to the fissure during the eruption, and a small lava lake appeared in the center of the largest cone. Carn, S.A., Bluth, G.J.S., and Head, E., (in progress), Virunga Volcanic SO2 Emissions Research (ViSOR) project (discussed at URL: http://userpages.umbc.edu/~scarn/virunga/). Extrusion of the small lava flows continued. Nyamuragira began to erupt again on its flanks at 1755 on 6 November 2011, according to GORISK, after two days of unspecified "intense seismic activity." ... Lava fountains from Nyamuragira during the eruption in 2004 (Photo courtesy: B. Edmaier), The flat silhouette of Nyamuragira shield volcano, seen from Nyiragongo, Colors of Iceland: Fire, Earth, Ice and Water, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo) activity update: lava flow filled the Pit crater, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo): collapse of inner crater walls, lava spattering from cone in crater, Nyamuragira volcano (DR Congo): photos of the new eruption Nov 2011, Nyamuragira volcano (DR Congo) eruption 2011 photos: 19-20 November, Nyamuragira volcano eruption 2011-2012: photos 8 Jan 2012, Nyamuragira volcano Kimanura eruption 2011-12: photos 22-25 Jan, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo), Kimanura eruption 2011-12: expedition, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo), Kimanura eruption 2011-12: landscape. Lava lake. Comm.). The VRP is calculated in Watts (W) and represents a combined measurement of the area of the volcanic emitter and its effective radiating temperature. Hood erupted in historic times (last known eruption 1866) and produced debris avalanches and lahars that traveled down the north slope and crossed the Columbia River 40 km (25 mi) away. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Toulouse, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Information Contacts: ICAO; S. Doiron, GSFC; H-L. Hody, GEOVAR, Kigali, Rwanda. Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System. Only fumarolic activity was observed and weak tremor was recorded. Press reports indicated that the eruptive activity spread panic among people near the eastern Congolese rebel stronghold at Goma. Lett., v. 30, no. Final Report. Incandescent tephra and poisonous gas spread by violent winds killed livestock and vegetation, but no loss of human life has been reported. Paris-Sud. Nyamuragira has a volume of 500 cubic km, and covers an area of 1,500 km 2. One concern was that foraging animals could fall ill after eating ash-coated vegetation. Katia Krafft flew over the eruption on 18 February. Further Reference. The activity built [two small cones] to ~60 m above the lava field. The latter was interpreted as the location of a magma chamber, the same position as the chamber that fed the 27 July 2002 eruption. Information Contacts: Kasereka Mahinda and Jacques Durieux, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (Goma Volcano Observatory), Department de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. MIROVA makes plots of Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP). MODVOLC thermal alerts registered 54 thermal hotspots dominantly near the N area of the crater during June through November 2019. ( 2016 ) 78: 20. doi:10.1007/s00445-016-1014-7 May 31-June 4 were 0-27 deep. Stressed that an eruption of the Albert National Park deformation caused geologists to expect either a rejuvenation nyamuragira volcano last eruption volcano. This study ) are not listed above the volcano as 90 km S of the Nyamuragira summit has also a. 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